Anax ephippiger (Burmeister, 1839)
Vagrant Emperor

Synonyms:

  • scientific: Hemianax ephippiger

Type locality: Madras, India

Diagnosis

Aside from its distinctive coloration (frons with black bars at base and on crest, brown dorsum and green sides of eyes and thorax, brown abdomen with blue dorsum of S2), the male is very distinct from other Anax species by (1) cubital field abruptly rather than gradually widened at base, 1-4 cells enclosed between field’s 2 cell-rows at this point; (2) sides of S4-9 with single longitudinal ridge formed by lateral carinae, rather than being double ridged with supplementary carinae above the lateral carinae; (3) cerci taper to sharp, rather than blunt or rounded, point; (4) epiproct narrowed to point, entire dorsum set with teeth, rather than being broad with truncate or widely notched and apex. [Adapted from Dijkstra & Clausnitzer 2014]

Habitat description

Standing and mostly temporary waters in open landscapes. Often with emergent vegetation. From 0 to 2100 m above sea level, but mostly at lower elevations, although possibly up to 2900.

Distribution

confirmed: Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana; Côte d'Ivoire; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Chad; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinee-Bissau; Kenya; Libya; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Republic of South Africa; Rwanda; São Tomé & Príncipe; Senegal; Socotra (Yemen); Somalia; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; Western Sahara; Zambia; Zimbabwe


Male © Paul Schrijvershof


Appendages (dorsal view)

Frons (dorsal view)

Map citation: Clausnitzer, V., K.-D.B. Dijkstra, R. Koch, J.-P. Boudot, W.R.T. Darwall, J. Kipping, B. Samraoui, M.J. Samways, J.P. Simaika & F. Suhling, 2012. Focus on African Freshwaters: hotspots of dragonfly diversity and conservation concern. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 129-134.


Barcode specimen(s):


Adult, male; Gabon, Haut-Ogoué, route Franceville Okondja © Mézière, Nicolas


Adult, female; Angola, Uige Province, new campus site and environs © Clausnitzer, V. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Democratic Republic of Congo, Katanga, © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Democratic Republic of Congo, Katanga, © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.

References

  • Burmeister, H. (1839). Handbuch der Entomologie. Zweiter Band, Befondere Entomologie. Zweite Abtheilung. Kauterfe. Gymnognatha. (Zweite hälfte; vulgo Neuroptera. Odonata, 805-862.
  • Ris, F. (1921). The Odonata or Dragonflies of South Africa. Annals South African Museum, XVIII, 245-452. [PDF file]
  • Longfield, C. (1931). A list of the Odonata of British Somaliland and a description of a new species of the genus Enallagma. Entomologist, 64, 274-278. [PDF file]
  • Balinsky, B.I. (1961). Observations on the dragonfly fauna of the coastal region of Zululand, with descriptions of three new species (Odonata). Journal Entomological Society Southern Africa, 24, 72-91. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1961). Dragonflies (Odonata) of Central Africa. Occasional Papers Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, 14, 1-97. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1966). Check-list of dragonflies (Odonata) from Malawi, with description of a new Teinobasis Kirby. Arnoldia, 2, 1-24. [PDF file]
  • Longfield, C. (1959). The Odonata of N. Angola. Part II. Publicacoes culturais Companhia Diamantes Angola, 45, 13-42. [PDF file]
  • Martin, R. (1896). Odonates des îles Seychelles. Memoires Societe Zoologique France, 9, 101-112. [PDF file]
  • Schouteden, H. (1934). Annales Musee Congo belge Zoologie 3 Section 2, 3, 1-84. [PDF file]
  • Lieftinck, M.A. (1969). Odonates Anisoptères - Odonata Anisoptera. Explor. hydrob. Lac Bangweolo and Luapula, 14, 1-64. [PDF file]
  • Calvert, P.P. (1899). Neuropterous insects collected by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith in Northeastern Africa. Ecological Entomology, 51, 228-244. [PDF file]
  • Sjöstedt, Y. (1909). Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der schwedischen zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905-1906 unter Leitung von Prof. Dr. Yngve Sjöstedt. 14. Pseudoneuroptera. Odonata, 14, 1-52.

Citation: Dijkstra, K.-D.B (editor). African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online. http://addo.adu.org.za/ [2017-12-11].