Anax speratus Hagen, 1867
(Eastern) Orange Emperor

Type locality: Cape Province, South Africa

Diagnosis

Male belongs to the speratus-group on account of (a) the unmarked frons; (b) the reddish femora contrasting with the black tibiae; (c) the presence of an accessory lamina on S10, a small process visible between the cerci in dorsal view; (d) the cerci with broadened and rounded apices; and (e) the epiproct that is at least half as long as the cerci. However, male differs from western counterpart A. rutherfordi and locally co-occurring A. gladiator (see both for further differences) by (1) larger size on average, Hw 52-57 mm rather than 49-54 mm; (2) the apical borders of S2-6 with small black lateral dots, rather than without; (3) the dorsal ridge on S10 is low in its basal half and slopes down to the segment’s apex, rather than being raised; and (4) the epiproct is about half as long as the cerci, rather than well over half. [Adapted from Dijkstra, Kipping & Mézière 2015]

Habitat description

Mostly streams, but sometimes rivers or headwaters, in open landscapes, open areas in forest or shaded by gallery forest. Often with emergent and aquatic vegetation. From 0 to 2400 m above sea level, but mostly between 500 and 1900.

Distribution

confirmed: Angola; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Ethiopia; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Namibia; Republic of South Africa; Rwanda; Sudan; Tanzania; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe; NOT confirmed: Eritrea; South Sudan; Swaziland


Male © Hans-Joachim Clausnitzer


Appendages (dorsal view)

Frons (dorsal view)

Map citation: Clausnitzer, V., K.-D.B. Dijkstra, R. Koch, J.-P. Boudot, W.R.T. Darwall, J. Kipping, B. Samraoui, M.J. Samways, J.P. Simaika & F. Suhling, 2012. Focus on African Freshwaters: hotspots of dragonfly diversity and conservation concern. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 129-134.


Barcode specimen(s):


Adult, male; South Africa, Western Cape, Hottentots-Holland Nature Reserve © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Adult, male; South Africa, Western Cape, Hottentots-Holland Nature Reserve © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Adult, female; South Africa, Western Cape, Kogelberg Nature Reserve © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Democratic Republic of Congo, Katanga, Kundelungu National Park © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Male; Democratic Republic of Congo, Katanga, Kundelungu National Park © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.


Adult, male; Zimbabwe, Manicaland, Chimanimani National Park © Dijkstra, K.-D.B.

References

  • Hagen, H. A. (1867). Notizen beim Studium von Brauer's Novara-Neuropteren. Verhandllungen der kaiserlich-kongiglichen zoologish-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 17, 31-62.
  • Ris, F. (1921). The Odonata or Dragonflies of South Africa. Annals South African Museum, XVIII, 245-452. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1961). Dragonflies (Odonata) of Central Africa. Occasional Papers Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, 14, 1-97. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1966). Check-list of dragonflies (Odonata) from Malawi, with description of a new Teinobasis Kirby. Arnoldia, 2, 1-24. [PDF file]
  • Longfield, C. (1959). The Odonata of N. Angola. Part II. Publicacoes culturais Companhia Diamantes Angola, 45, 13-42. [PDF file]
  • Ris, F. (1911). Ueber einige afrikanische Arten der Aeschninen-Gattung Anax. Annales Societe Entomologique Belgique, 55, 320-324. [PDF file]
  • Schouteden, H. (1934). Annales Musee Congo belge Zoologie 3 Section 2, 3, 1-84. [PDF file]
  • Lieftinck, M.A. (1969). Odonates Anisoptères - Odonata Anisoptera. Explor. hydrob. Lac Bangweolo and Luapula, 14, 1-64. [PDF file]

Citation: Dijkstra, K.-D.B (editor). African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online. http://addo.adu.org.za/ [2018-04-25].